Early Paleoindian groups probably first entered Nevada during the late Pleistocene where there is an indirect association of Clovis projectile points. Dating these sites in Nevada and elsewhere in the Great Basin remains elusive but across North America, Clovis sites appear contemporaneous with the abrupt onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling (12.9 Ka.). New evidence from Paisley Caves in Oregon and Bonneville Estates in Nevada (awaiting final report) may indicate other cultural groups entered Nevada during the same period of Clovis groups. These are represented by the Western Stemmed tradition, archaeologists are currently debating the data based on the excavations of Paisley Caves and Bonneville Estates.

Prehistoric paradigms have been developed regionally in Nevada for the east slope of the Sierras, in the Carson and Humboldt Sinks, Central, Northeastern and Southern Nevada. These are framed within the Archaic Period (extending nearly 10,000 years) until Euro-American contact. In general they reflect climatic adaptation, settlement subsistence changes and group migrations and they are associated with technologies that are identified in their projectile point styles, ceramics (in some areas), basketry and architecture.

* Class II and Class III Cultural Resource Surveys and Inventories
* Background Research
* Survey and Data Recovery
* Artifact Identification and Analysis
* Site Evaluation for National Register Eligibility Determination
* Archaeological Treatment Plans and Recommendations
* Federal Regulations (NEPA, Section 106 and 4(f), NAGPRA/ARPA Compliance)
* Archaeological Site Damage Assessment and Recovery
* Archaeological Testing and Probing

* Rock Art Inventory

* Construction Monitoring

* Public Outreach 

Background Research – A vital and necessary step in archaeology is to have clear knowledge of previous projects conducted in the study area. Eetza’s staff members are experienced conducting background research prior to any archaeological project, reviewing the archaeological records from the Nevada Cultural Inventory System (NVCRIS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Nevada State Museum (NSM), the Historical Society and from any other relevant entities for previously-recorded sites and earlier surveys in, or, immediately adjoining the project area. In addition, volumes of the Federal Register are examined for properties included or nominated in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).

Site Survey and Data Recovery – Include locating and evaluating newly discovered cultural resources, sites from past projects and documented resources; assessing the likelihood that significant prehistoric resources may be present. At Eetza, we conduct Class III, pedestrian field surveys adhering to BLM guidelines to relocate previously identified resources, locate and document new properties that are present (using IMACS forms).

Traditionally an archaeological excavation is a way to mitigate and minimize impacts to significant historic properties, our personnel has over 50 years experience conducting archaeological excavations in the states of California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington States, but principally in Nevada. Site evaluation is the next step for determination of National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) site eligibility, and data recovery is disseminated in a technical report.

Artifact Identification and Analysis – We implement combined analysis programs to create chronology from controlled contexts. At Eetza Research Associates we are experts identifying flaked stone tools, which can date from over 10,000 years ago up to historic contact. Accordingly prehistoric ceramics can be identified and dated throughout shape, form, design and TL dating. Residue analysis is also performed on a need basis.

Compliance - All projects are conducted in full compliance with all relevant state and federal laws and regulations. These include the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), the Nevada state Museum (NSM), the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation’s Section 106 regulations, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA), the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act (AIRFA).

Archaeological Site Damage Assessment - At times throughout natural or human activity, physical damage to cultural resources properties is inevitable, while in other times damage is purposely caused such as vandalism including graffiti and/or illegal collection and excavation. Our firm can provide fast and efficient site damage assessment and recommend mitigation measures.

Monitoring –Supervising ground-disturbing activities during construction undertakings is essential in sensitive areas of historic properties, to avoid and/or minimize impacts, Eetza Research Associates offers the expertise of qualified archaeologists who will be present during construction to recognize any resources that are encountered the during initial assessment, and initiate required consultations between the project developer, the responsible agency and interested parties, such as the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) and/or concerned Native Americans.

Public Outreach - Our public outreach programs for professional audiences is achieved by sharing our findings at professional meetings and conferences. However sharing this kind of information with the general public requires careful consideration and planning. In our youth programs, we engage schools, provide in-classroom lectures showcasing archaeological sites but these are adapted according to our audience and are prepared with results from archaeological projects. We may include interpretive displays (posters), and PowerPoint presentations; well planned programs are essential to empower public awareness and curve site vandalism.

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